flat feet, 平足) Refers to the lack of arch, usually refers to the collapse of the bow parapodum actually including the longitudinal arch and transverse arch collapse. In standing, walking and other weight-bearing activities, the bottom of the feet all contact with the ground.
to understand from the biomechanics Angle flat feet
in order to load in the process of human evolution, and shock absorption, walking foot and metatarsal with tarsal ligaments firmly connected, form has a little activity of convex to the top of the arch bone structure, known as the arches. Arch by orthotic insole manufacturers bond, metatarsal arch of tarsus, a foot of the tendons, ligaments, elastic, has the contractile force organization to form an upward arch.
the lateral longitudinal arch of a smaller curvature elasticity is weak, mainly related to erect weight maintenance of posture. By the heel bone, cuboid, and 4, and 5 metatarsal;
cross bow is composed of front and back metatarsal tarsal;
the medial longitudinal arch curvature is bigger, strong elasticity, suitable for jumping events, buffer, shock, etc. , by the heel, astragalus, navicular, 1-3 piece of cuneiform and inside 3 metatarsal.
arch has a tendon, muscle and fascia, ligaments and bones maintain at the same time, the stability of maintenance can be divided into two aspects of the bony and soft tissue factors. On the one hand, wedge foot bone ensures the arch arch of conjunction, maintain arch bony structure; On the other hand is the ligament, the elasticity of the fascia and muscle contraction, tendons and other soft tissue strain, is to maintain active factors of arch, the structure function as bowstring, keep elastic arches and form.
if these or muscle ligament ( Tendon) Damage, or congenital dysplasia, foot bone fracture, etc, all can lead to arch collapse, forming flat feet.
arch similar to an architectural model: a triangle structure, triangle has two pillars, and at the bottom are connected by a rope. Architecture is under pressure from above, the rope is under tension. Architecture model of the rope is similar to the arch of the plantar fascia.
plantar fascia is one of the important soft tissue structure, maintain the arch when walking or standing for ankle joint rotation, Achilles tendon pull lever is shorter, through the stiff in the foot, to the point at which the bone, multiplied, start-up and boosting effect in walking. Calcaneal burden 1/2 weight while standing, walking affordable four times the weight.
the structure of the triangle from gravity from the ankle bone, passed metatarsal forward, backward to heel. Provide a foot support upright walking stability, support body weight, the buffer shock, force transmission, protection channel, etc. And flat feet because of the reduced the frame Angle of the triangle, so can’t through the triangle share their body weight to the front feet and hind, the strength of the burden of foot in doubles, so many patients with flat feet to walk for a long time, or weight can feel arch swelling pain, even affects the ankle, leg, knee, or even lead to back pain.
flat feet in onset time was divided into congenital and acquired, acquired is divided into early childhood flat feet and adult acquired flatfoot symptoms. According to the type can be divided into reducing ( Flexible) Flat feet and structural flat feet.
according to the degree: light, medium and heavy
light: full longitudinal arch reduce
medium: full longitudinal arch disappear
heavy: full longitudinal arch disappeared, and foot inside edge projection from the bone shift to the former bottom of medial malleolus foot plantar side. Cases, the shortening of the Achilles tendon and sometimes after sufficient evaginate.
according to the classification of onset time
1, congenital flat feet, namely genetic flat feet, usually arranged in familial.
2, acquired flatfoot, divided into early childhood flat feet and adult acquired flatfoot. The adult acquired flatfoot ( 成人后天扁平足畸形,AAFD) May be due to the feet nerve damage, relaxation ( Loose) And feet inside elastic ligaments and tendons structure function obstacle, such as posterior tibial tendon injuries ( 胫后肌腱功能障碍,PTTD) , all can lead to foot and/or ankle deformity, cause the AAFD. Talus joints or astragalus joint subluxation (may occur Partial dislocation) 。 Fracture is a possible reason. All these problems caused by the joint deformities could cause AAFD.
according to the classification of flat type
in flexible flat feet, not the load-bearing bone position is usually normal, but as a result of supporting ligament relaxation or loose, when the load of the foot and ankle soft tissue and joint pressure itself, ligament relaxation or intensity is abate, cause drooping arch. Thus affect the whole leg joint structure.
structural flat feet, also known as rigid flat feet, usually pathological, seriously affect the foot function. About 70% ~ 80% of the rigid flat feet and tarsal joint, joint with spacing and meet with boat joint more; Other tarsal joint, such as from the boat joint, to roll a joint, boat rolls joint, boat wedge joint is relatively rare. The remaining 20% ~ 30% with trauma, tarsal bones TB, rheumatoid arthritis non-specific synovitis, phil side or lientang tendons tenosynovitis, etc. Congenital vertical talus is rigid flat feet, one of the most serious types of main malformation is primary is apart from the subjective joint dislocation, scaphoid to move to the talus neck on the back side, locked the talus in a vertical position, form a rocking chair foot deformity.
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